How to become a Toxicologist

Toxicologists study the harmful effects of chemical, physical and biological agents on living organisms by detecting and examining the symptoms, mechanisms and treatments of poisoning (especially the poisoning of people). They also determine safe or acceptable levels of exposure to particular agents.

Personal requirements for a Toxicologist

  • Enjoy and have an aptitude for science and research
  • Able to think logically and analytically
  • Able to carry out detailed and accurate work
  • Good communication skills
  • Able to think creatively and solve problems
  • Able to work as part of a team

Education & Training for a Toxicologist

To become a toxicologist you usually have to complete a relevant science or forensics degree at university with a major in toxicology. To get into these courses you usually need to gain your Senior Secondary Certificate of Education. Prerequisite subjects, or assumed knowledge, in one or more of English, mathematics, chemistry, biology and physics are normally required. Universities have different prerequisites and some have flexible entry requirements or offer external study. Contact the institutions you are interested in for more information.

Additional information

Students and graduates of relevant courses may be eligible for membership of the Australasian Society of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacologists and Toxicologists.

Duties & Tasks of a Toxicologist


  • Study the amount of exposure to a substance (from pollution caused by environmental contaminants such as industrial waste products or emergency events such as a gas leak, for example) and the potential effect it may have on public health, plants, animals and the ecosystem
  • Study how exposure to foreign chemicals affects the genetic, chemical, physical and structural composition of cells, tissues, organ systems and whole organisms
  • Devise and carry out experiments to determine how chemical or drug concentrations in the body change over time
  • Test newly discovered or manufactured substances for their safety, effects and possible use as drugs
  • Analyse blood, urine and other biological and environmental samples to identify the chemical composition and concentration of drugs, contaminants and other substances
  • Evaluate evidence from cases where tampering and contamination has occurred
  • Write scientific reports on research and investigations, as well as more general information for scientific, managerial, political and general audiences
  • Document results, preserve evidence and maintain chain of custody (the document or paper trail showing the process from evidence seizure through to the presentation of the evidence in court) in criminal investigations
  • Provide advice to managers, politicians, primary producers, healthcare workers, the general public and community groups.


  • Investigates the chemical structure and function of living cells and their isolated components, organs and tissues in humans, animals, plants, and micro-organisms.
  • Examines objects of interest and uses the knowledge gained to create and develop new, and improve existing, products, materials and processes.
  • Studies the forms and structures of parasites and toxins by systematic observation, dissection and microscopic examination.
  • Designs and conducts experiments, makes observations and measurements, researches information, analyses data, prepares or supervises the preparation of laboratory reports and scientific papers, presents findings at scientific meetings and conferences, and may supervise the work of staff.

Employment Opportunities for a Toxicologist

Toxicologists are employed across several industries, including pharmaceutical, food and chemical industries, environmental management, scientific research, government regulatory agencies, and other research organisations and health services. They are also employed in hospitals and educational institutions.


Clinical Toxicologist

A clinical toxicologist has medical qualifications to study the harmful effects of chemicals, drugs, pesticides and other substances on humans through the clinical diagnosis of symptoms and biological poisoning. Clinical toxicologists also treat and manage intoxicated patients.

Environmental Toxicologist/Ecotoxicologist

An environmental toxicologist/ecotoxicologist studies the harmful effects of environmental exposure to chemical, physical and biological agents on living organisms (including their effects on humans, fish, other animals and plants), as well as their effects on ecosystems.

Regulatory Toxicologist

A regulatory toxicologist has the primary role of ensuring public health and safety from the use of chemicals, drugs and pesticides by identifying potential health risks posed by exposure to such substances. Regulatory toxicologists provide advice to governments, health professionals, politicians and the public on potential risks associated with chemical exposure so that appropriate risk management strategies may be implemented to protect the health of workers and the public.

Forensic Toxicologist

A forensic toxicologist specialises in the study of alcohol, legal and illicit drugs, and poisons, including their chemical composition, preparation and identification. Forensic toxicologists also study the absorption, distribution and elimination characteristics of chemicals and substances in the body, as well as the way in which the body responds to them and the factors that determine drug safety and effectiveness.

Occupational Toxicologist

An occupational toxicologist studies the harmful effects of substances used in the workplace to determine a safe or acceptable level of exposure to workers, as well as appropriate control measures to reduce or eliminate worker exposure.

Analytical Toxicologist

An analytical toxicologist identifies and measures toxic agents in biological and environmental samples to determine the extent of exposure (after poisoning or a chemical spill, or during long-term environmental contamination, for example) and to monitor the remediation of chemical spills.


Toxicologists study the harmful effects of chemical, physical and biological agents on living organisms by detecting and examining the symptoms, mechanisms and treatments of poisoning (especially the poisoning of people). They also determine safe or acceptable levels of exposure to particular agents.

  • Average age
    Average age
    37 years
  • Future Growth
    Future Growth
  • Gender Share
    Gender Share
    63% female
  • Average full-time
    Average full-time
    42 hours
  • Weekly Pay
    Weekly Pay
  • Skill level rating
    Skill level rating
    Very high skill
  • Unemployment
    Average unemployment
  • Full-Time Share
    Full-Time Share
    70% Full-Time
  • Employment Size
    Employment Size
    1,000 workers
  • Employment Size
    Employment by state
    ACT: 3.9%
    NSW: 26.9%
    NT: 1.5%
    QLD: 17.4%
    SA: 7.4%
    TAS: 2.6%
    VIC: 32.1%
    WA: 8.2%
  • Employment Size
    Age brackets
    15-19: 0.3%
    20-24: 5%
    25-34: 35%
    35-44: 30.8%
    45-54: 16.9%
    55-59: 5.5%
    60-64: 3.9%
    65 and Over: 2.6%
  • Employment Size
    Education level
    Advanced Diploma/Diploma: 3.4%
    Bachelor degree: 40.9%
    Certificate III/IV: 4.1%
    Post Graduate/Graduate Diploma or Graduate Certificate: 48.5%
    Year 10 and below: 0%
    Year 11: 0%
    Year 12: 3%
Is the information on this page correct? Request update

Become a member

Already a member? LoginForgot password?

Join the conversation